for Concrete Floors on Grade
1.1 Qualifications: All work shall performed by a member in good
standing of the Concrete Floor Contractors Association who shall
conform to the requirements of CSA A23.1-09.
1.2 Related work: Earthwork, Formwork, Reinforcing Steel and
1.3 Work included: Concrete slabs on grade, slabs on metal deck,
concrete fill to metal pan stairs including non-slip inserts,
equipment pads, curbs, steel fibre reinforcing, concrete supply,
formwork including dowels, floor finishing, surface hardeners
and treatments, curing, sawcutting, isolation joints, and
caulking of floor joints.
1.4 Quality Assurance and Warrantee: It is the intent of
this section to establish a single competent source, being
the concrete floor finishing subcontractor, to be responsible
to provide complete durable concrete floors including the
provision of: formwork, reinforcing, concrete supply and
finishing labour complete as specified herein. Concrete
floors shall have an extended guarantee against surface
deterioration and cracking for a period of two years from
substantial performance of the work.
1.5 Pre-Construction Meeting: No later than one month prior
to the start of work on site, arrange for a special meeting
of all parties including the Owner’s representative, general
contractor, testing company, concrete supplier, floor
finishing subcontractor, earthworks subcontractor and
specialty material suppliers, to review the project drawings,
specifications and site conditions. The floor finishing
subcontractor shall submit a materials summary and a sawcut
and construction joint shop drawing for review and approval
by the Owner’s representative prior to any work being
performed on site.
[Reference: CFCA Preconstruction Meeting Agenda Form]
1.6 The owner shall select and measure concrete floor tolerances
as specified in CSA A23.1. All costs for concrete floor testing
are the responsibility of the owner.
[See CFCA Position Statement on Floor Tolerances]
2.1 Concrete shall conform to CSA A23.1 having a minimum strength,
of 25 MPa [or higher as required per the structural design],
a minimum 265 kg Portland cement content, a maximum 0.55 water:cement
ratio [or lower for durability or reduced drying time and permeability],
60 mm ± 20 mm initial "water" slump, normal setting ASTM C494 Type F
plasticizing admixture to a final 130 mm ± 20 mm plasticized slump
at the point of concrete deposit or concrete placement. Incorporate
40 mm coarse aggregates for slabs screeded by machine and 20 mm coarse
aggregates, or less, should be used for slabs screeded by hand. All
admixtures shall be normal setting and non-retarding. A maximum 10%
slag or 10% type "C" flyash cement replacement may be acceptable in
cold weather conditions with a maximum 25% slag cement replacement or
15% type "C" flyash in hot weather conditions. There shall be no
cement substitution when using type "GUL" cement. Type "F" flyash is only
recommended for concrete mixes with a water:cement of 0.50 or less.
Concrete mixes for Polished Concrete with exposed aggregate
classifications shall be carefully designed with consideration for
the type and quantity of fine and coarse aggregates to be used.
[See CFCA Position Statement on Concrete Purchasing]
2.2 Steel fibre reinforcing conforming to CSA A23.1 as manufactured
by Bekaert, Euclid, Maccaferri or Optimet. Steel fibres shall be
accompanied by a Certificate of Compliance and Test Reports in
accordance with ASTM A 820.
2.3 Tolerances: As specified by CSA A23.1 [to meet
the requirements of the operating environment]. Conformance
measurement must be completed within 72 hours of each floor
2.4 Isolation joints shall be polyethylene or 6 mm thick flexible
foam material for perimeter walls and 12 mm thick foam for column
wrapping and slab penetrations.
2.5 Bulkheads: Wood or steel.
2.6 Dowels: Round or square smooth steel bars with bond breaker
on one end to allow horizontal slippage.
2.7 Dry Shake Surface hardeners: Factory pre-mixed incorporating
plasticizing agents [traprock / silica-quartz / emery /
metallic / coloured] applied at a rate [light duty: 3.0 Kg
per m˛ / medium duty: 5.0 Kg per m˛ / heavy duty: 7.0 Kg per
m˛] as manufactured by CPD, Euclid or Sika. Location as show on the
[Note: Coloured hardener to applied at a rate of 7 kg/m2]
[Note: Polished concrete with a Class B aggregate exposure should
include for the application of 5 kg/m2 dry shake surface hardener
to obtain more uniform aggregate exposure]
2.8 Surface Evaporation Reducers: Eucobar by Euclid.
2.9 Curing compound: Clear, water based, non-yellowing
conforming to ASTM C-309 with a minimum solids content of 20% as
manufactured by CPD, Euclid, WR Meadows or Sika.
2.10 Polyethylene curing sheet to be a minimum of 0.05 mm thick.
2.11 Liquid Hardeners: penetrating hardening/dustproofing liquid
hardeners shall be applied at a 200 sf per gallon coverage rate in
a single flood coat application as manufactured by Ashford Formula,
CPD, Euclid, WR Meadows or Sika. [Note: Liquid hardeners do not
conform to ASTM C309 and are not to be used as a curing agent].
2.12 Sawcut fillers:
As manufactured by CPD, Euclid, WR Meadows or Sika forming to:
Type 1: for interior non-vehicular areas 12mm deep on a backer
rod using a flexible 2 component epoxy/urethane material
having a Shore "A" hardness of 25-35.
Type 2: for interior vehicular areas filled full depth of
the sawcut using a semi-rigid polyurea or epoxy filler having a
minimum Shore "A" hardness of 75.
2.13 Concrete Polishing shall be performed in accordance with the
system manufacturers instructions as supplied by CPD, Euclid,
WR Meadows, RetroPlate or Sika.
3.1 Ensure sufficient lighting as necessary for finishing
3.2 Inspect the granular base elevation for variations in excess
of +/- 10 mm in accordance with CSA A23.1 (to be repaired by the
[See CFCA Position Statement on Granular Bases]
3.3 Protect adjacent surfaces from staining.
3.4 Install isolation joint for full slab thickness where slab
edges meet vertical elements (walls, columns, bollards etc.).
3.5 Isolate through-slab penetrations with sonotube for the full
depth of the slab. Fill with concrete no sooner than 28 days
after the adjacent slab has been cast.
3.6 Bulkheads shall be constructed for the full slab thickness,
straight and level with the finished floor elevation and shall
be located outside of traffic areas where possible. Dowels shall
be installed in the centre of the floor aligned to permit horizontal
movement and de-bonded on one end. All construction joints shall
3.7 Add steel fibre reinforcing at the specified rate in
accordance with the manufacturers instructions. The concrete
floor contractor shall certify that the total quantity of
materials are added as specified. Steel fibre shall be added
to the concrete mixer truck to the next highest half bag increment
such that no less than the specified dosage rate is installed in
each truckload of concrete. Steel fibres shall be added in
accordance with the CFCA Steel Fibre Certification Course.
3.8 Place, finish and cure concrete in accordance with CSA A23.1.
3.9 Finish concrete surfaces accordingly to specified tolerances.
3.10 Apply liquid surface evaporation reducers by sprayer to
protect the concrete from pre-mature surface drying when
required. Mix in accordance with the manufacturers
instructions and apply in a thin film following the
bull floating operation. Do not work liquid materials into
the surface of the plastic concrete.
3.11 Apply dry [pigmented] shake surface hardeners in multiple
applications to the total specified quantity [_____ Kgs/m˛].
Scrape any build-up of dry materials to achieve a uniform
coverage rate. Material manufacturer to certify that
materials are applied as specified.
3.12 Curing shall commence as soon as possible.
Type 1: Apply one coat of curing compound evenly across the
entire floor surface at the manufacturers recommended coverage
Type 2: Wet cure with poly, burlap or geotextile fabric.
Note: Surfaces to receive liquid hardeners or applied finishes shall
be wet cured.
3.13 Sawcut contraction joints as shown on the drawings. Sawcuts
should be spaced at approximately 25 times the slab thickness
to a maximum spacing of 4.5 linear metres on centre and a depth
of 1/3 the slab thickness (38 mm deep for Soffcut dry sawing)
in approximately square sections. Cutting shall commence as soon
as the concrete has hardened, generally within 12 to 24 hours
of concrete placement, depending upon concrete quality, ambient
conditions and the method of cutting.
3.14 Fill exposed sawcuts subject to solid tire forklift traffic
full depth with a load bearing polyurea or epoxy filler (without
backer rod) a minimum of 120 days after floor installation.
[See CFCA Position Statement on Floor Joint Fillers]
3.15 Fill exposed sawcuts subject to foot traffic, where specified,
with a flexible epoxy/urethane sealant 1/2" deep on a backer rod a
minimum of 75 days after floor installation.
3.16 Polished Concrete shall meet aggregate exposure Class [A, B or C]
and Gloss Level [1, 2, or 3].
[Reference: CFCA Specification Bulletin on Polished Concrete]
The Concrete Floor Contractors Association
RPO DUNDAS NEYAGAWA, PO Box 30021, Oakville, ON, L6H 7L8
Tel: (905) 582-9825 Fax: (416) 981-3913
Further information is available on-line at www.concretefloors.ca